How do Integrated Circuits Work
In our modern society, we have found ourselves heavily reliant on electronics such as mobile phones, computers, televisions, and other electronic appliances in and out of the home. Often, we find that we could not imagine a life without them now that they have been integrated in everything we use including entertainment, business, transportation, health, and beyond. Much of the technological capabilities that modern electronics are able to achieve would not be possible without a very important type of electronic hardware component, which is the integrated circuit (IC). Currently, almost every electronic and hardware component utilizes and relies on integrated circuit technology.
Integrated circuits (ICs) parts are composed of a small semiconductor wafer that contains electronic circuits with a multitude of capacitors, transistors, and resistors. Integrated circuit function can include serving as a microprocessor, oscillator, IC precision timer, amplifier, and more. The power of integrated circuits is majorly in part due to the transistors they hold, which serve to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, or MOSFETs, determine conductivity and this amplify and switch signals. Since their invention, MOSFETs have become the foundation of modern electronics and electronic circuits. The IC controller MOSFET of the integrated circuit allows for controlling switch timing, an example of MOSFET functionality.
As compared to previous available technologies, integrated circuit technology has provided for the ability to constantly minimize the size and costs of electronics and their internal hardware. As compared to having many parts soldered to a large circuit board, integrated circuits may have upwards of billions of MOS transistors all placed on a tiny amount of surface area. This ability to fit transistors within such a small space is constantly improving as the amount of MOS transistors on a single integrated circuit doubles every two years on average as per Moore’s law. Because of this constant shrinking, electronics such as computers and telephones have seen large amounts of size and price reduction, making them much more affordable and feasible for the average consumer. As the size of integrated continues to decrease, the amount of power and reliability increases. This is due to the fact that smaller packaging and matching allows for great precision and leaves less room for error.
Integrated circuits also have benefited from processes such as mass production. As an integrated circuit can function across a variety of applications and electronics, heavy amounts of production can offset high production costs and make them much more affordable. This is why many electronics have begun to utilize IC technology, and why more technologies and hardware are becoming integrated as well.
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